Such links with reform movements, often radically socialist, had already been prepared in the 1840s, as the example of Andrew Jackson Davis shows. Swedenborg was formerly a highly regarded inventor and scientist, achieving several engineering innovations and studying physiology and anatomy. Nach 1848 wurde der Spiritismus maßgeblich von (ehemaligen) Saint-Simonisten und besonders von Fourieristen geprägt.[11][12]. [24] The Paris séances of Eusapia Palladino were attended by an enthusiastic Pierre Curie and a dubious Marie Curie. Hoskins, Janet Alison 2015. [58][59], Spiritualists reacted with an uncertainty to the theories of evolution in the late 19th and early 20th century. All of his feats were exposed as tricks.[51][52]. Die Verstorbenen unterscheiden sich demnach nur wenig von ihrer früheren irdischen Existenz, behalten ihre Eigenheiten, und auch die „andere Welt“, in der sie leben, ähnelt dem Diesseits, ist allerdings in mancherlei Hinsicht „besser“. [11] However, in 1888 the Fox sisters admitted that this "contact" with the spirit was a hoax, though shortly afterward they recanted that admission. [36] Brazilian Spiritist, Hernani Guimarães Andrade, has in turn written rebuttals to these criticisms.[35]. [32] Am Weitesten ist sie wohl in Brasilien verbreitet, wo der Kardecismus, teils in Verbindung mit afro-brasilianischen Religionen wie Umbanda und Candomblé, sehr populär ist. [28], Zudem scheiterte der Spiritismus ab den 1860er Jahren an dem eigenen Anspruch, eine Wissenschaft zu sein und eben auch an diesem Maßstab gemessen zu werden. The following works contain concepts related to Spiritist beliefs: In Brazil, a number of soap operas have plots incorporating Spiritism. The evidence of the senses appealed to practically-minded Americans, and the Fox sisters became a sensation. Der Singularbegriff geht wirkungsgeschichtlich vor allem auf Johann Gottfried Herder zurück, der für Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieus Begriff esprit im Deutschen das Wort Geist benutzte. Instead, the doctrine suggests that followers adhere to some principles common to all religions. Jahrhunderts aufgeteilt, sodass auf der einen Seite der Geistbegriff innerhalb der Philosophie unter anderem als Weltgeist, Zeitgeist oder Volksgeist im Diskurs vorkam. [24], Kardec's works do not establish any rituals or formal practices. [34], In Brazil, Catholic priests Carlos Kloppenburg and Óscar González-Quevedo, among others, have written extensively against Spiritism from both a doctrinal and parapsychological perspective. Religious movement started in the 19th century by Allan Kardec, This article is about Spiritism. [7] Der Mesmerismus versuchte ebenfalls, wenn auch auf etwas andere Art („Magnetisierung“), mit Hilfe von Medien Informationen aus einer übersinnlichen Welt zu erhalten. The broad areas of criticism relate to charlatanism, pseudoscience, heresy, witchcraft, and Satanism. Kardec's research was influenced by the Fox sisters and the use of talking boards. Young and beautiful, her appearance on stage fascinated men. Cora married four times, and on each occasion adopted her husband's last name. Quevedo, in particular, has sought to show that Spiritism's claims of being a science are invalid. She is best known as a chronicler of the movement's spread, especially in her 1884 Nineteenth Century Miracles: Spirits and Their Work in Every Country of the Earth, and her 1870 Modern American Spiritualism, a detailed account of claims and investigations of mediumship beginning with the earliest days of the movement. [3], Yet another prominent Spiritualist and trance medium prior to the Civil War was Paschal Beverly Randolph (1825–1875), a man of mixed race, who also played a part in the abolitionist movement. But those who believe this, and desire to do so, are not aware that it is associated with danger to their souls. [citation needed] Some statistics[weasel words] suggest an adherence to Spiritist practices by 40 million people in Brazil.[31]. [19] Other individuals such as Francis of Assisi, Paul the Apostle, Buddha and Gandhi are also sometimes considered[clarification needed] by the Spiritists. [5], Die Entstehung des modernen Spiritismus wird gewöhnlich mit den Schwestern Margaret und Kate Fox und ihren Eltern in Verbindung gebracht, die 1848 behaupteten, in einem unlängst neu bezogenen Haus in Hydesville im US-Staat New York seltsame Klopfgeräusche zu hören, welche sie dem Geist eines ermordeten und im Keller begrabenen Hausierers zuschrieben. [18] Man warf ihm vor, seine Autorität als renommierter Wissenschaftler zu missbrauchen, um den spiritistischen Aberglauben salonfähig zu machen, und bezeichnete ihn gar als geisteskrank. In general, the idea of Spiritism is a belief in the existence of spirits, and has been influenced by other fundamental world religions. Wallace attributed these novelties to a supernatural agency. [9] His 1847 book, The Principles of Nature, Her Divine Revelations, and a Voice to Mankind,[10] dictated to a friend while in a trance state, eventually became the nearest thing to a canonical work in a Spiritualist movement whose extreme individualism precluded the development of a single coherent worldview. The evolution of Mesmer's ideas and practices led Scottish surgeon James Braid (1795–1860) to develop hypnotism in 1841. [45], In the 1920s many "psychic" books were published of varied quality. Helmut Zander: Anthroposophie in Deutschland. [25] Bis zu ihrem Lebensende hielt Fox Vorträge über die Betrügereien ihres Lebens, doch die mit ihren Schwestern und professionellen Komplizinnen vorgetäuschten Séancen hatten unter Millionen von Spiritismusbegeisterten längst so viele Nachahmer gefunden, dass sich bereits ein ganzer Industriezweig gebildet hatte um die Nachfrage an Tricktechnik-Requisiten zu befriedigen. Gerald Massey said "Spiritualism will accept evolution, and carry it out and make both ends meet in the perfect circle". It also asserts that disembodied spirits, through passive or active mediumship, may have beneficent or malevolent influence on the physical world. Spiritualism is too diverse to have a universal code of beliefs; instead, Spiritualists accept sets of more wide ranging principles. "[7] See also Heaven and Hell #249[8], Nevertheless, Swedenborg is often cited by Spiritists as a major precursor for their beliefs. [1] These reformers were uncomfortable with more prominent churches because those churches did little to fight slavery and even less to advance the cause of women's rights.[3]. [9], Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) discovered what he called magnétisme animal (animal magnetism),[citation needed] which became known as mesmerism. [5] It has influenced a social movement of healing centers, charity institutions and hospitals involving millions of people in dozens of countries, with the greatest number of adherents in Brazil. Religion, because it aims the moral transformation of mankind, advocating the teachings of Jesus Christ in its true expression of love and charity. In his work Apocalypse Explained, #1182.4, he wrote, "Many persons believe that man can be taught by the Lord by means of spirits speaking with him. The movement quickly spread throughout the world; though only in the United Kingdom did it become as widespread as in the United States.

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