[4], The terms "Black War" and "Black Line" were coined by journalist Henry Melville in 1835,[5][6] but historian Lyndall Ryan has argued that it should be known as the Tasmanian War. The final proclamation differed significantly from the previous one. In 1809 New South Wales surveyor-general John Oxley reported that kangaroo hunting by whites had led to a "considerable loss of life among the natives" throughout the colony. Umarrah remained defiant and was placed in Richmond jail and remained there for a year. Violence ceased in 1834 but resumed between September 1839 and February 1842 when Aboriginal people made at least 18 attacks on company men and property. In the background, other... On March 9, 1861, The Burlington Weekly Hawk-eye printed in full President Abraham Lincoln’s first inaugural address in which the new president stressed the Union between the North and South and his constitutional duty to maintain and defend it. 11 on Military Emancipation of Slaves, May 19, 1862 (Document), Second Confiscation Act: "Chap. "[79] As early as 1852 John West's History of Tasmania portrayed the obliteration of Tasmania's Aboriginal people as an example of "systematic massacre"[80] and in the 1979 High Court case of Coe v Commonwealth of Australia, judge Lionel Murphy observed that Aboriginal people did not give up their land peacefully and that they were killed or forcibly removed from their land "in what amounted to attempted (and in Tasmania almost complete) genocide". The cordon was abandoned four days later after Aboriginal people slipped through and escaped at night. He says Arthur was determined to defeat the Aboriginal people and take their land, but believes there is little evidence he had aims beyond that objective and wished to destroy the Tasmanian race. "[26], From 1825 to 1828, the number of native attacks more than doubled each year, raising panic among settlers. Any hopes of peace in the Settled Districts were dashed in spring. Between 22 August and 29 October 15 colonists died in 39 Aboriginal attacks—about one every two days—as the Oyster Bay and Big River clans launched raids on stock huts, while Ben Lomond and North clans burned down stock huts along the Nile and Meander rivers in the east and west. A report noted: "Volley after volley of ball cartridge was poured in upon the dark groups surrounding the little camp fires. By 1819 the Aboriginal and British population reached parity with about 5000 of each, although among the colonists men outnumbered women four to one. He also claimed that the Aboriginal Tasmanians, by prostituting their women to sealers and stock-keepers, by catching European diseases, and through intertribal warfare, were responsible for their own demise. In the later 1820s this campaign became intense, “Black War” sometimes being used only in relation to this period. He noted: "Everybody on the frontier was afraid, all the time." As the war progressed, however, African Americans could sign up for combat units. But between September and November 1826 six more colonists were murdered. Though the number of attacks in 1831 was less than a third of those the previous year—a total of 70, compared with 250 in 1830—settlers remained so fearful that many men refused to go out to work.

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