They are social birds and typically travel in flocks, often strung out in a line. [36], The pink-backed pelican has a large population ranging over much of sub-Saharan Africa. The genus Pelecanus was first formally described by Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae. [81] Numbers of brown pelican plummeted in the 1950s and 1960s, largely as a consequence of environmental DDT pollution, and the species was listed as endangered in the US in 1970. Many pelican parasites are found in other bird groups, but several lice are very host-specific. [50] Although principally a fish eater, the Australian pelican is also an eclectic and opportunistic scavenger and carnivore that forages in landfill sites, as well as taking carrion[72] and "anything from insects and small crustaceans to ducks and small dogs". Evolutionary relationships among the extant species based on Kennedy et al. [51] The throat pouch of the Californian subspecies of the brown pelican turns bright red, and fades to yellow after the eggs are laid, while the throat pouch of the Peruvian pelican turns blue. The main ongoing threats include hunting, especially in eastern Asia, disturbance, coastal development, collision with overhead power lines, and the over-exploitation of fish stocks. In their place, herons, ibises, spoonbills, the hamerkop, and the shoebill have now been transferred into the Pelecaniformes. The largely marine brown and Peruvian pelicans, formerly considered conspecific,[3] are sometimes separated from the others by placement in the subgenus Leptopelicanus[14] but in fact species with both sorts of appearance and nesting behavior are found in either. The species is susceptible to bioaccumulation of toxins and the destruction of nesting trees by logging. [84] The chief threats it faces are from habitat loss and human disturbance, but populations have mostly stabilised following increased protection in India and Cambodia. Length up to 1.52 m (5.0 ft), wingspan 2.48 m (8.1 ft). They also breed in groups called colonies, which typically gather on islands. Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae.They are characterised by a long beak and a large throat pouch used for catching prey and draining water from the scooped-up contents before swallowing. Avian malaria is carried by the mosquito Culex pipens, and high densities of these biting insects may force pelican colonies to be abandoned. [120], The image became linked to the medieval religious feast of Corpus Christi. [4] Starting in the 1880s, American white pelicans were clubbed and shot, their eggs and young were deliberately destroyed, and their feeding and nesting sites were degraded by water management schemes and wetland drainage. Pelicans are found on many of the world's coastlines and also along lakes and rivers. Specialist feather lice of the genus Piagetella are found in the pouches of all species of pelican, but are otherwise only known from New World and Antarctic cormorants. There are more than half a dozen species of pelicans, but all of them have the famous throat pouch for which the birds are best known. Young pelicans feed by sticking their bills into their parents' throats to retrieve food. He fell in love with a woman he thus saved, but her friends and she tricked him and escaped. The birds have been persecuted because of their perceived competition with commercial and recreational fishing. The brown pelican, on the other hand, dives on fish (usually a type of herring called menhaden) from above and snares them in its bill. [104] In May 2012, hundreds of Peruvian pelicans were reported to have perished in Peru from a combination of starvation and roundworm infestation. [53], Modern pelicans are found on all continents except Antarctica. [a] The National Audubon Society estimates the global population of the brown pelican at 300,000. [98], Where pelicans interact with fishers, through either sharing the same waters or scavenging for fishing refuse, they are especially vulnerable to being hooked and entangled in both active and discarded fishing lines. Sure, both Josh Hart and Brandon Ingram have excellent potential as rotation mainstays, with Ingram having the capability to mold himself into an All-Star talent. Numbers declined substantially during the 20th century, one crucial factor being the eradication of the important Sittaung valley breeding colony in Burma through deforestation and the loss of feeding sites. He can take in his beak [4] The plumage of immature pelicans is darker than that of adults. [117] A pelican feeding her young is depicted in an oval panel at the bottom of the title page of the first (1611) edition of the King James Bible. The pelican is the subject of a popular limerick originally composed by Dixon Lanier Merritt in 1910 with several variations by other authors. The pelican consequently prepared to go to war against them by daubing himself with white clay as war paint. [118], The self-sacrificial aspect of the pelican was reinforced by the widely read medieval bestiaries. When fish congregate in the shallows, the pelicans simply scoop them up. [67][75] Brown pelicans have been reported preying on young common murres in California and the eggs and nestlings of cattle egrets and nestling great egrets in Baja California, Mexico.

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