Ask Us! Exception to the general rule: do not capitalize the following: Conjunctions (these are words that connect words, sentences, or phrases, such as for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). At the nation’s oldest Roman Catholic law school, Notre Dame Law School encourages students of diverse backgrounds to broaden their social, spiritual, and personal lives while honing their intellectual and professional skills to serve the good of all. Remember, the Bluebook really prefers that you cite to a print source. Simply click in any footnote, press the Ctrl and A keys at the same time to select all the footnote text, and press the F9 key., If you do this, then it is very easy to update all the footnote number references later. If you are referring to a non-English source in its original language, you need to cite the original-language version (see footnote #17 in the example below). The Bluebook. You can ignore more than two-thirds of the book if all you need to do is to cite cases and statutes -- which covers most of the first year of law school, and a lot of litigation. It was offered by HLS research librarian Jennifer Allison for LLM students in March 2020. The information here can help anyone who is writing a scholarly legal paper in the United States, including JD students, LLM students, and SJD students. Contact Historical & Special Collections at, Drop-In Reference Visit our online Office Hours, Meet with Us  Schedule an online consult with a Librarian, Classes View Training Calendar or Request an Insta-Class, Harvard University Digital Accessibility Policy. The University of Pennsylvania Law Review. When I add new footnotes, the numbering in supra citations gets messed up. Needless to say, it is large, a bit unwieldy, and challenging at first. Although it references the 20th edition of the Bluebook, the class is still relevant and provides a good basic introduction to general Bluebook style and citation rules for US and foreign sources. The Harvard Law Review, It is available in two formats: as a print book, and as an electronic publication. Remember, the purpose of citation is to make it as easy as possible for someone to find your cited source. See footnotes #15 and #16 in the example below. Few books cause law students as much dread, pain, anger, and frustration as The Bluebook. Since law school work focuses on academic writing, this guide describes and explains the rules in the Whitepages section. Use this as a quick reference if you can't remember which rule covers which type of source. Schedule an online consult with a Librarian, Rule 12 (p. 120): Statutes, Codes, and Session Laws, Rule 13 (p. 135): Legislative Materials (including Congressional documents), Rule 14 (p. 142): Administrative and Executive Materials, Rule 15 (p. 147): Books, Reports, and other Nonperiodic Materials, Rule 16 (p. 157): Periodical Materials (including journal articles and newspapers), Rule 17 (p. 169): Unpublished and Forthcoming Sources, Enter the first part of your footnote text, up to the word "note.". For more than eighty years, The Bluebook has provided authoritative guidance to legal citation for American students, professionals, and scholars. TIP: There are two ways to change text to small caps. students enrolled in U.S. Legal Research Analysis & Writing at the Georgetown University Law Center. FAQ #2: How do I cite something I found online? The 20th edition is not available for purchase on our website. Right inside the front cover there is a quick guide to the major rules, with citation examples. For secondary sources like law review articles and books, if you want to cite a source that you cited longer ago in your paper than the previous footnote, you can use supra. Exception to the exception: Capitalize any of those words if they are the first word of the title, the first word after a colon, or more than four letters. Submit a question or search our knowledge base. Most of The Bluebook, however, is irrelevant for many people who create legal documents. The Bluebook is currently in its 21st edition, released in June 2020. Adding footnotes can be a problem if you already have supra references. Below is list of questions we are often asked about the Bluebook. In the example below, footnote #5 was just added. See rule 1.5: Parenthetical Information, for how to do this. It's great! Table 2 has rules for citing sources from selected foreign jurisdictions. Conference Paper Digests by Year. One use of hereinafter is if you cite two sources by the same author in the same footnote. The Bluebook's capitalization rule, Rule 8, states the following regarding capitalization of words titles: Incorrect article title: The Bluebook.Few books cause law students as much dread, pain, anger, and frustration as The Bluebook.., It's still available at Free 30-day Trial with Purchase. Hearing the Voiceless: A Respected Judge on Putting the Rights of Crime Victims Above Those of Defendants. in footnote #16 above. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. (Year published). If you need help navigating the Bluebook or are not sure how to cite a particular source, you are welcome to contact a research librarian for help. Tables 3 (international organizations, p. 299) and 4 (treaties, p. 302) have rules for citing international sources. In creating these two examples, the following rules were consulted (and some judgment calls were made): These examples may create more questions than they answer. In fact, if you're dealing only with cases, litigation documents and laws, you might be able to find the answer to your question using the cheat sheet on the inside back cover., Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for the Bluebook. 2020 2020-10: Digest of all CIKM-2020 papers 2020-10: Digest of all ACM Multimedia-2020 papers 2020-10: Download code/data for ~70 ACM Multimedia-2020 papers 2020-09: Digest of all MOBICOM-2020 papers 2020-08: Digest of all ECCV-2020 papers When using a signal, you may want to add information explaining why you are citing a particular source. It is no longer in the print version of the Bluebook, but it is freely available online at Below is a two-part recording of a Bluebook training class. Remember, you can only use id. Wire-bound to lie flat and fully indexed. The University of Pennsylvania Law Review, FAQ #1: Does the Bluebook have a list of citation examples for each rule? General rule: capitalize all words, including the initial word and the word immediately following the colon. It is specifically written for first-year J.D. NOW when you purchase a printed copy of The Bluebook, you will get a FREE 30 day trial to the Bluebook Online! © Georgetown University Law Library. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Providing an English-language translation of foreign-language article titles is allowed, but not necessary. So what if you want to cite a case (or other primary source) that you have cited before? FAQ #5: When should I use "see" in a footnote? If you cited only one source in footnote #1, and you want to cite the exact same source in footnote #2, that is when you use id. To buy a print copy or a subscription to the electronic version, visit Cite foreign books just like U.S. books according to rule 15., Give Us Feedback However, for something like a law review article, even if you found it online, you still need to follow the instructions in Rule 16 to cite it. The Bluebook, formally titled The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, is the style manual for citing to legal documents within the United States. 3.7 (42) Structure: Last name, FM., For Tech Support However, it is an essential book that every lawyer should know how to use. FAQ #8: Are there special capitalization rules for titles? and The Yale Law Journal. For articles from foreign periodicals and newspapers, see rule 20.6. The Bluebook, formally titled The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, is the style manual for citing to legal documents within the United States.It is now in its 20th edition, more than an inch thick, and consists of over 500 pages of guidance on legal citation. However, none of these services or websites work perfectly, so you still have to double-check all citations. How to Cite a Conference Paper in APA. This is a guide to the Bluebook system of American legal citation. You may be asking why you can't use id. For journal papers, on the other hand, the amount of time needed for publishing is very flexible. Georgetown University Law Center faculty, staff, and students who have citation questions or questions about this guide may contact the Reference Desk. Footnotes #13 and #14 have been added to the example (below) to show how signals and parentheticals are used. Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / How to Cite a Conference Paper in APA. FAQ #3: How do I cite a source that I cited in another footnote? Submit a question or search our knowledge base. Wire-bound to lie flat and fully indexed. Table 1 (p. 227) has jurisdiction-specific rules for citing U.S. federal and state cases, statutes, and other primary legal materials. For Orders & Subscriptions Instead, you have two options: Most LLM papers are in a constant state of flux until they are turned in. If you are referring to a source that was translated into English, you need to cite the translated version (see footnote #18 in the example below). Conference papers are usually short and concise with a limit on the number of pages allowed. Introductory signals explain why and how you are citing and using a source.They are listed below, and rule 1.2 explains their use. This guide explains the organization and layout of The Bluebook and how to cite the most commonly cited legal materials, including cases and statutes. If you have 200 footnotes already done in your paper, you will have to go back and find each one that cites the Jackson book and change the 5 to a 6. The information here can help anyone who is writing a scholarly legal paper in the United States, including JD students, LLM students, and SJD students. You have to do the same thing in the supra footnote. It has gotten more flexible over the years. If you cited a book in the earlier footnote, you put the author's name in small caps. What does that mean? Visit the HLS Library Training Calendar ( to view our training schedule and sign up for a class. The Jackson book is no longer in footnote #5 after this addition, it's now in footnote #6. Yes! They are illustrated in footnotes #19 and #20 below. For example, the German Basic Law is cited in small caps, whereas the Italian constitution is not (and, perhaps, should be). Only the source has to be the same, not the page or section. The rest of this guide is organized as follows: The purpose of this guide is to introduce The Bluebook and basic concepts of legal citation to new law students. It cites a different law review article. Finally, many Bluebook rules require certain names, words, and phrases to be shortened. Instead, what you should do from the start is use Microsoft Word's internal cross-reference feature. In the text of the article, place the footnote number after any punctuation, including periods, commas, quotations marks, etc. As every law student knows, putting citations in Bluebook format is a hassle. Footnote #7 in the example below illustrates this. FAQ #9: Where do I put the footnote numbers in the text, before or after the punctuation? The HLS research librarians offer Bluebook training classes throughout the academic year. There is no stated rule on that topic for books. Instructions for doing this are in Rule 3.5: Internal Cross-References. Content ©2005, 2007, 2010, 2015, 2020 by the editors of Tip: Note that these rules sometimes overlap and contradict each other; do your best to follow the examples. ISBN: 978-0-578-66615-0.

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